Iris

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Iris

Aia ka iris i ka ʻōnaehana optical o ka maka, hoʻoponopono ia i ka nui o ka mālamalama e hele ai i ka haumāna. ʻO ia ka ʻāpana kala o ka maka.

Anatomy Iris

ʻO ka iris he mea ia o ka ʻōpuʻu o ka maka, no kona vascular tunic (papa waena). Aia ia ma ke alo o ka maka, ma waena o ka cornea a me ka lens, i ka hoʻomau o ka choroid. Ua hou ʻia ʻo ia ma waena o ka haumāna e hiki ai i ka mālamalama ke komo i ka maka. Hana ia ma ke anawaena o ka haumana ma ka hana o na i'o pahe'e poepoe (sfincter muscle) a me na kukuna (dilator muscle).

Iris physiology

Ka mana haumāna

Hoʻololi ka iris i ka wehe ʻana o ka haumāna ma ka hoʻopaʻa ʻana a i ʻole ka hoʻonui ʻana i nā ʻiʻo sphincter a me dilator. E like me ka diaphragm i loko o ka pahupaʻikiʻi, pēlā ia e hoʻomalu ai i ka nui o ka mālamalama e komo i ka maka. Ke nānā ka maka i kahi mea kokoke a i ʻole ka mālamalama, ʻokoʻa ka ʻiʻo sphincter: paʻa ka haumāna. ʻO ka mea ʻē aʻe, ke nānā aku ka maka i kahi mea mamao a i ʻole ka nāwaliwali o ke kukui, ʻokoʻa ka ʻiʻo dilator: hoʻonui ka haumāna, piʻi ke anawaena a hoʻokuʻu i ka māmā.

kala maka

ʻO ka waihoʻoluʻu o ka iris e pili ana i ka neʻe ʻana o ka melanin, kahi puaʻa ʻeleʻele, i loaʻa pū i ka ʻili a i ʻole ka lauoho. ʻO ke kiʻekiʻe o ka manaʻo, ʻoi aku ka ʻeleʻele o nā maka. ʻO nā maka ʻulaʻula, ʻōmaʻomaʻo a i ʻole nā ​​​​maka hazel i waena.

ʻO nā pathologies a me nā maʻi o ka iris

Aniridie : hopena i ka nele o ka iris. He kīnā ia e ʻike ʻia ma ka hānau ʻana a i ka wā kamaliʻi. ʻO ka maʻi maʻamau, pili ia i ka 1 / 40 hānau i kēlā me kēia makahiki. ʻAʻole mālama ʻia ka nui o ka mālamalama e komo i ka maka: ʻoi aku ka nui, hiki ke hōʻino i nā hale ʻē aʻe o ka maka. Hiki ke paʻakikī ʻo Aniridia e nā cataracts a i ʻole glaucoma, no ka laʻana.

ʻOcular albinism : ka maʻi genetic i hōʻike ʻia e ka nele a i ʻole ka emi ʻana o ka melanin i loko o ka iris a me ka retina. I kēia hihia, ʻike ʻia ka iris i ka uliuli a i ʻole ka hina me kahi haumāna ʻulaʻula no ka mea ʻike ʻia nā kīʻaha koko i ka ʻikea. ʻO kēia depigmentation ma muli o ka nele a i ʻole ka hemahema o tyrosinase, kahi enzyme i komo i ka hana ʻana i nā puaʻa melanin. ʻO nā hōʻailona i ʻike ʻia ma ke ʻano maʻamau:

  • nystagmus: ka neʻe ʻana o nā maka
  • photophobia: ka hoʻomanawanui ʻole o nā maka i ka mālamalama e hiki ke hōʻeha i ka maka
  • ka emi ʻana o ka ʻike maka: myopia, hyperopia a i ʻole astigmatism hiki ke hoʻopilikia i ka poʻe me ka albinism.

Hiki i kēia depigmentation ke hoʻopili i ka ʻili a me ka lauoho, ke ʻōlelo nei mākou no ka oculocutaneous albinism. ʻO ka hopena o kēia maʻi i ka ʻili maikaʻi loa a me ka lauoho keʻokeʻo haʻahaʻa a ʻulaʻula paha.

Heterochromia : kapa 'ia 'o "maka paia", 'a'ole ia he ma'i akā he 'ano kino wale no ka hopena o ka 'oko'a hapa a 'oko'a paha o ka waiho'olu'u o ka iris. Hiki iā ia ke hoʻopilikia i nā iris o nā maka ʻelua a ʻike ʻia i ka wā hānau a i ʻole ma muli o kahi maʻi e like me ka cataracts a i ʻole glaucoma.

Hiki i ka Heterochromia ke pili i nā ʻīlio a me nā pōpoki. Ma waena o ka poʻe kaulana, ua ʻōlelo pinepine ʻia ʻo David Bowie he mau maka ʻeleʻele. Akā ʻo ka waihoʻoluʻu ʻeleʻele o kona maka hema ma muli o ka mydriasis mau, ʻo ia ka hopena o kahi hahau i loaʻa iā ia i kona mau makahiki ʻōpio. ʻO Mydriasis ka hoʻonui maoli ʻana o ka haumāna i ka pōʻeleʻele i mea e lawe mai ai i ka mālamalama e like me ka hiki i ka maka. No Bowie, ua pōʻino nā ʻiʻo o kona iris i ka hahau ʻana i hoʻomāhuahua mau ai kāna haumāna a hoʻololi i ke kala o kona maka.

ʻO ka mālama ʻana a me ka pale ʻana o Iris

ʻAʻohe lāʻau lapaʻau no kēia mau maʻi. Hiki i ka ʻike ʻana i ka lā o ka poʻe me ka albinism ke hoʻopōʻino i ka ʻili a ua kiʻekiʻe ko lākou pilikia i ka maʻi kanesa ʻili. No laila ke aʻo nei ka World Health Organization (WHO) (6) mai hōʻike ʻoe iā ʻoe iho i ka lā pololei, mai ka wā kamaliʻi. Paipai ʻia ke komo ʻana i ka pāpale a me nā makaaniani no ka mea ʻaʻole hoʻokani ka iris depigmented i kāna kuleana ma ke ʻano he pale i nā kukuna ultraviolet o ka lā.

Nā hoʻokolohua Iris

Iridologie : ʻoiaʻiʻo "haʻawina o ka iris". ʻO kēia hana ka heluhelu ʻana a me ka unuhi ʻana i ka iris e ʻike i ke kūlana o ko mākou kino a hana i kahi nānā olakino. ʻAʻole i hōʻoia ʻia kēia ʻano hoʻopaʻapaʻa e ka noiʻi.

Biometrics a me ka ʻike iris

He ʻano ʻokoʻa ko kēlā me kēia iris. ʻO ka likelika o ka loaʻa ʻana o nā iris like ʻelua he 1/1072, ʻo ia hoʻi, hiki ʻole. ʻO nā māhoe like ʻole he iris ʻokoʻa. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia ʻano e nā hui biometric e hoʻomohala nei i nā ʻenehana no ka ʻike ʻana i ka poʻe ma ka ʻike ʻana i kā lākou irises. Hoʻohana ʻia kēia ʻano hana ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa e nā luna dute, ma nā panakō a i loko o nā hale paʻahao (8).

ʻO ka mōʻaukala a me ka hōʻailona o ka iris

No ke aha he mau maka uliuli ko nā pēpē?

I ka hānau ʻana, kanu ʻia nā puaʻa melanin i loko o ka iris (9). ʻIke ʻia kona papa hohonu, ʻo ia ka uliuli-hina, a laila ʻike ʻia i ka ʻikea.

ʻO ia ke kumu he mau maka uliuli ko kekahi mau pēpē. I loko o nā pule, hiki i ka melanin ke piʻi i luna o ka iris a hoʻololi i ke kala o nā maka. ʻO ka waiho ʻana ma ka ʻili o ka melanin e lilo nā maka ʻeleʻele akā inā ʻaʻole e ala aʻe, e mau ana nā maka i ka uliuli. Akā ʻaʻole pili kēia hanana i nā pēpē āpau: ʻo ka hapa nui o nā pēpē ʻApelika a me ʻAsia he mau maka ʻeleʻele ke hānau ʻia lākou.

ʻO nā maka ʻulaʻula, a genetic evolution

Ma mua, he mau maka ʻeleʻele nā ​​kāne a pau. Ua hoʻololi ʻia ka genetic mutation ma kahi o hoʻokahi gene kala kala nui, a ʻike ʻia nā maka uliuli. Wahi a kahi noiʻi 10 (2008), ua ʻike ʻia kēia hoʻololi ʻana ma 6000 a 10 mau makahiki i hala aku nei a mai kahi kupuna hoʻokahi. Ua laha keia hoololi ana i na kanaka a pau.

Hiki nō naʻe nā wehewehe ʻē aʻe, akā naʻe: hiki i kēia hoʻololi ʻana ke hiki i kekahi mau manawa kaʻawale, ʻaʻohe kumu hoʻokahi, a i ʻole nā ​​hoʻololi ʻē aʻe ke kumu i nā maka uliuli.

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