Emaciation: wehewehe, kumu a me nā hopena

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Emaciation: wehewehe, kumu a me nā hopena

ʻO ka ʻai ʻana he ʻano mea ʻai ʻole i haʻahaʻa loa i ke kiʻekiʻe o ke kanaka. ʻO ia ka hopena o ka ʻai maikaʻi ʻole, ka maʻi a i ʻole ka piʻi ʻana o nā pono o ke kino.

He aha ka hoomaunauna

ʻO ka malnutrition ka hopena o ke kaulike ʻole o ke koena ikehu ma waena o ka ʻai a me nā pono o ke kino. Hiki ke hemahema a ʻoi aku paha i ka ikehu a i ʻole ka ʻai meaʻai o ke kanaka.

Aia kēia i kekahi mau kūlana:

  • ʻokiʻoki: pilina haʻahaʻa ma waena o ke kiʻekiʻe a me ka makahiki;
  • hoʻonele: haʻahaʻa haʻahaʻa ma waena o ke kaumaha a me ke kiʻekiʻe;
  • underweight: haʻahaʻa ratio ma waena o ke kaumaha a me ka makahiki;
  • nā hemahema o ka micronutrient (nā huaora a me nā minela koʻikoʻi);
  • ke kaumaha nui, ka momona.

ʻO nā maʻi pili ʻole pili i ka meaʻai.

Aia ka malnutrition ma nā ʻāina āpau o ka honua. Pili ia i nā mākua a me nā keiki. ʻO kekahi poʻe ke kaumaha a i ʻole ka momona, a ʻo nā mea ʻē aʻe i lalo o ke kaumaha. Wahi a ka World Health Organization, aia he 1,9 billion overweight a i ʻole obese adults ma ka honua a me 462 miliona underweight. Ma waena o nā keiki ma lalo o ʻelima mau makahiki, he 52 miliona ka mea i hoʻopilikia ʻia e ka hoʻopau ʻana (me ka 17 miliona ma ka hōʻino nui ʻana) a me 41 miliona ma ke kaumaha a me ka momona.

He haʻahaʻa loa ka wehewehe ʻana o ka hoʻopau ʻana i ka ratio kaumaha-a-kiʻekiʻe, ʻo ia hoʻi ka māmā loa e pili ana i ke kiʻekiʻe. He hōʻailona pinepine ia o ka pohō kaumaha nui loa ma muli o ka liʻiliʻi o ka meaʻai i ʻai ʻia a i ʻole ka nui o ka pohō ma muli o kahi maʻi e like me ka maʻi maʻi nui a i ʻole ka maʻi diabetes.

He aha nā kumu o ka ʻai ʻana?

Hiki i ka emaciation ke kumu he nui:

  • haʻahaʻa loa ka ʻai ʻana ma muli o kahi pōʻaiapili socio-economic ʻaʻole e ʻae i ka ʻai kaulike a me nā mea nui. ʻO kēia ka hihia me nā keiki i hoʻopilikia ʻia ma nā ʻāina ʻekolu o ka honua;
  • ʻai haʻahaʻa loa ka hopena o ka pilikia noʻonoʻo e like me nā maʻi ʻai (anorexia, bulimia, a me nā mea ʻē aʻe), ka hopohopo a me ke kaumaha;
  • ka hoʻopau nui ʻana o nā meaʻai e ke kino (nā nalo ʻana o ka urinary i ka wā o ka maʻi diabetes, ka maʻi maʻi a me / a i ʻole ka luaʻi ʻana, nā pilikia metabolic e alakaʻi ana i ka hoʻonui ʻana i ka ikehu e nā cell, etc.).
  • maikaʻi ʻole o ka lawe ʻana i nā meaʻai e ke kino (inā loaʻa kahi pilikia o ka mumū mau a i ʻole ka maʻi maʻi o ka ʻōpū no ka laʻana).

He aha nā hopena o ka hoʻopau ʻana?

Hiki i ka pohō kaumaha nui a me ka wikiwiki ke loa'a ka hopena maika'i loa i ke kino. Hoʻemi ia i ka pono o ka ʻōnaehana pale, ka hoʻemi ʻana i ka ikaika o ka ʻiʻo, paʻakikī i kekahi mau kino e hana maʻamau a me kahi kūlana nāwaliwali.

I nā kamaliʻi liʻiliʻi, hiki ke loaʻa nā hopena koʻikoʻi i ka ʻai ʻana, me ka make. No laila he mea nui e ʻike a mālama ʻia. Ma ka honua holoʻokoʻa, ʻo ka undernutrition ke kuleana ma kahi o 45% o ka make o nā keiki ma lalo o ʻelima.

He aha ka lāʻau?

No ka hui lapaʻau, ʻo ka hana mua ka ʻimi ʻana i nā kumu kumu o ka hoʻopau ʻana a me ka ʻike ʻana i nā poʻe maʻi i hiki ke pōmaikaʻi mai ke kākoʻo ʻai meaʻai: wehewehe i ke kūlana o kēia manawa, kona kūpaʻa hiki, kona hiki ke hoʻololi, ka pōʻaiapili socioeconomic.

ʻO nā lāʻau lapaʻau e hiki ke hana penei, ma ke ʻano o ka hoʻonohonoho ʻana:

  • ʻai i hoʻonui ʻia: hoʻonui ʻia ka meaʻai a ka mea maʻi me nā protein a hoʻololi ʻia e like me kona ʻono (hiki ke hoʻololi i ka hopena o ka chemotherapy, no ka laʻana);
  • nā meaʻai waha: ua hoʻohui ʻia lākou i ka meaʻai maʻamau e hoʻāʻo e uku i nā hemahema;
  • Nutrition Enteral: I ka hana pono ana o ka digestive tract a hiki ke komo i ka meaʻai, ʻo ka meaʻai enteral ke ʻano meaʻai meaʻai mua e hiki ke hoʻokō. ʻO ia ka hāʻawi ʻana i nā meaʻai i loko o kahi ʻeke ma ke ʻano wai pololei i loko o ka ʻōpū a i ʻole ka ʻōpū me ka hoʻohana ʻana i kahi ʻimi;
  • Ka meaʻai makua: Ke hiki ʻole ke hānai maoli ʻia a ua poino ka ʻāpana hoʻoheheʻe, hoʻohana ʻia ka meaʻai makua e hoʻolako i nā pono meaʻai o ke kino. ʻO ka huaʻōlelo parenteral ʻo ia ka "bypassing the digestive tract". Me kēia ʻano, ʻaʻole e hele ka meaʻai i loko o ka ʻāpana digestive akā pololei i ke kahe koko.

Āhea e kūkākūkā ai?

I ka hopena o ke kaumaha nui, wikiwiki a me ke kaumaha ʻole, pono e nīnau i ke kauka olakino.

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